Adopt an Inmate

Calling all Angels

Archive for the category “From the Inside”

Remove The Handcuffs

 

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I distinctly remember the first time I was placed in handcuffs (and every subsequent time, sadly) and how helpless I felt. I’d never felt such grave despair as I did in that moment and every instance thereafter. My will was over; the officer’s will was all that mattered and prevailed over mine. The handcuffs were in large part the deciding factor in that happening.

Although I was still in custody when we arrived at the county jail, when those cold, steel handcuffs were removed, my brain immediately calculated a sense of liberation — albeit not in its truest essence. It was certainly still enough to make me appreciate the little bit of “freedom” I had in being able to move my arms and hands as I pleased, even if my entire body was still being held captive. Yet, ironically, I cannot tell you how often I have picked up a set of handcuffs, slapped them on myself, and locked them only to soon find myself complaining about their severe discomfort and remarkable restriction. I’d be glad to explain.

Countless people find themselves continuing to carry shame stemming from their past — a past they rationally know they cannot change. For instance, many who believe in a religion that declares their sins are forgiven if only they confess them through prayer and humbly ask for them to be forgiven will readily admit that although they believe their Higher Power has forgiven them of their sins, they still have a hard time forgiving themselves. They “give it” (the burden from the past) away to their Higher Power, then time after time they snatch it right back. Why? Is it an attempt to retain some control over their transgressions, even though they intuitively and cognitively know that’s impossible? Is it because they feel they are not worthy of being forgiven and living without the burdens of their past? I don’t know. What I do know is holding on to past shame and regrets as though you owe them something is nothing less than staying handcuffed to them. If you allow it, the past has a way of constraining you in every imaginable way: careerwise, relationships, friendships, mental and physical health, and much more.

Similar to not forgiving oneself for past transgressions is harboring resentment toward another. We all know at least one person who can stubbornly hold a grudge for years! Yet, it is not the person (or people) he/she detests that is being harmed, it is the one who has chosen to carry the animosity. In all likelihood the other person has long moved on from the incident and doesn’t even have a clue that a grudge is being held against them, while the other person seethes day after day, month after month, year after year, not allowing themselves to break from the past and freely move into the future. This common occurance is tantamount to waking up every morning, grabbing the handcuffs off the dresser, and locking them onto your wrists as you attempt to get your day started. Can you imagine how limiting this would be if you actually did this with a tangible set of handcuffs? But is there really a practical difference between the limitations one is faced with when confined by physical handcuffs versus the constraints of metaphorical mental and emotional handcuffs? In fact, the argument could be reasonably made that metal cuffs merely limit your physical movement while the other kind impacts your life in every other meaningful way, having far more consequential and debilitating effects.

The past is the past for a reason: we can’t go back and relive it, change it, or erase it. But the present is also the present for a reason: we are meant to live in it, cherish it, and treat it as the gift it is. When we allow (emphasis on ‘allow’) our past to affect our present, which in turn affects our future, we are giving it far more power and influence than it deserves. The handcuffs we willingly wear that keep us bound to the past are only keeping us from the many promises that the present and future have to offer. Remember: forgiveness of others is not for their benefit, but for ours. It only harms me if I carry around the burden of bitterness, so I choose to relieve myself of that insidious grief by forgiving others as I hope they would me. Understanding that reinforces my need to let it go. Doing this ensures those steely cold handcuffs stay right where they are and not locked around my wrists — and my life.

grad-pic-outsideIn 2013 Martin L. Lockett published his memoir, Palpable Irony: Losing my freedom to find my purpose. During his incarceration, he has earned a Certificate of Human Services  from Louisiana State University, AA from Indiana University, BS in Sociology from Colorado State University – Pueblo, and an MS in Psychology from California Coast University. He continues to tutor in the GED program at the Oregon State Correctional Institution in Salem, Oregon, and co-facilitates an impaired driver victims impact panel. He aspires to counsel adolescents who struggle with substance abuse.

Hate Medicine

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We watched him dying. Everyone on our wing had their own diagnosis.

“Cirrhosis.”

“It’s jaundice. Look at how yellow he is.”

“How can you tell? He’s hispanic.”

“Next time you get close to him, look at his eyes. They are yellow.”

“I bet he has liver cancer. Look at how skinny he’s gotten. If he weighs a hundred pounds I’d be surprised.”

Several of us wrote requests to medical. “You really must help this man.” Somebody took a guard quietly to the side of the dayroom after our requests went unanswered.

“You see that guy standing on the wall next to 101 cell?”

“Sure.”

“He’s dying. When you do an in and out, take a close look at him. He never goes to chow, his celly says he has chronic diarrhea. Somebody has got to do something for him. Medical is ignoring us.”

At first, our attentions were discreet. But later we openly made pests of ourselves, asking him daily if he needed help, if he was feeling okay. His stoic refusals led us to believe he was committing an agonizingly slow suicide. Finally, medical responded, though we were certain it was too late. He refused treatment time and time again. To the Warden’s credit (how word reached him nobody is sure), when he saw the man in the infirmary, he was having none of their official resignation.

“What are you doing for this  man?”

“Nothing. He’s refusing treatment.”

“Oh, hell no! He’s going to the hospital. Now!”

That was the last we saw of him. We’ve heard nothing since about whether he lived or died but we kept him in our prayers.

It’s probably like this in other states but certainly in Texas, the prison system is loathe to even hint that they employ people who care about inmates. Thus, every nurse station is labeled an ‘infirmary,’ every form requesting medical care is a ‘sick call,’ and you pick up your medication at the ‘pill window.’ Outside. Rain, snow, sleet, or shine.

To say that prisons do a poor job of delivering health care is a gross understatement. Prison Legal News has been at the forefront of reporting and litigation on behalf of inmates who’ve suffered medical malpractice. You can find, in their archives, article upon article describing lawsuits against prisons which have neglected inmates to the point of serious injury and death. In many cases, suffering could have easily been prevented.

A libertarian-minded person might argue that government hires the least qualified since they pay below-market labor rates; look at the VA for instance. There may be some truth in that. Yet, incompetence alone can’t account for such widespread malpractice. Diseases that are routinely vanquished outside prisons are rampant and life-threatening inside them. When is the last time you heard of someone dying of a staph infection or sepsis in a hospital? It happens rarely because staph and sepsis rarely go unrecognized or untreated. In prison?

“Here’s an Ibuprofen. Go back to your cell.”

And that is after one has waited up to 72 hours for the infirmary to respond to your sick call request.

This indifference isn’t because medical staff are incompetent but because they’re trained to be belligerent. That sounds like hyperbole, doesn’t it? it’s not.

Not all belligerence leads to injury or death. Most refusals to provide care merely result in dramatic cost savings. Let’s face it, garden variety colds and flus resolve themselves. Nobody dies. They’re uncomfortable is all. Inmates will be forced to work anyway, threatened with disciplinary hearings which can jeopardize parole chances, a win-win for prison wardens.

Not all malpractice results in legal action. Very few inmates have the resources to litigate a malpractice suit.

An inmate on my unit, we’ll call him Bob, was diagnosed with brain cancer his last time down. He was given an emergency parole but was convicted of another DUI and sent back to prison. After arriving, he was transferred to the Mumford Unit to have his tumor removed. The surgery required that doctors cut away a piece of Bob’s skull. Once his tumor was removed, the piece of bone that had been cut away was fastened back to his skull using four screws and two metal plates.

About five months ago, Bob showed me a two-inch piece of bone that had pushed itself through a wound in his scalp. Also pushed out of his scalp was a titanium screw. Alarming to say the least. Bob put in a sick call request and the nurse was concerned enough to schedule a trip to the neurologist.

Going to see a medical specialist in a Texas prison is an ordeal. TDCJ does not have the resources to employ specialists at every unit. Depending on the type of specialist, an inmate might have to be transported hundreds of miles by bus, cuffed to another prisoner. In the worst case, you’re chained, shackled and hog-tied. Prior to travel, you’re required to pack all of your property and inventory it. Then at 6 AM, you’re taken to a holding cell where you can wait up to four hours for the bus to arrive.

Bob was shackled and hog-tied on his trip to the neurologist. Not once, not twice, but three times was he sent, each trip excruciating and humiliating. On the third trip he was able to converse with the specialist.

“Bob, I have good news and bad news.”

“Okay, what’s the good news?”

“The good news is you’re cancer-free. Your MRIs are negative. No sign of cancer at all.”

“That is good news! What’s the bad news?”

“We can’t see any sign of missing bone, nor can we find any of the screws we used to re-attach the piece we cut out during your surgery.”

“Wait, what?”

“They aren’t showing up. I can’t explain it really.”

Bob literally has three screws loose in his head somewhere. Unless he lodges a serious complaint, the medical professionals obligated to care for him have officially washed their hands of him.

Perhaps you’re still not convinced that belligerence is cultivated. TDCJ contracts its medical care to a corporation called UTMB* Correctional Managed Care, at several of its units. Outsourcing indemnifies it from medical malpractice lawsuits. It also jeopardizes its reputation for being tough on inmates by using a company that has the word ‘care’ in its name.

Another inmate at this unit is suing TDCJ and UTMB for injuring him and neglecting to treat his injury, namely a separated shoulder caused by an officer’s assault. The suit went to trial (Charles R. Adams v. Lieutenant Bailey, et al., – Civil Action No. H:12-CV-02520). The transcript of the trial contains UTMB’s admission of professional belligerence towards inmates.

Dr. Erin Jones, who interned as a psychiatrist and has not even one hour of experience in osteopathy, was called as an expert witness by UTMB’s lawyers. In spite of her lack of experience, she was allowed to give testimony on Adams’ shoulder condition. More interesting was the beginning of her testimony on behalf of the defense.

Q: Then when you went to work for UTMB in the correctional managed health care system did you receive any kind of training?

A: Yeah, we had training that’s called NEO.

Q: What is that?

A: New Employee Orientation. And it’s — working in corrections is very different from working in free-world medicine. And so we had to learn —

Q: Explain to us why. What is different about it?

A: Well, there is a lot more patients that want something for secondary gain. There is — basically eighty to ninety percent of our patients are either lying or exaggerating on their symptoms to try to get something. [Treatment, perhaps?]

And then, my job every day — and it’s a challenge — is that I have to find that ten to twenty percent that are really sick and take care of them because they need my help, you know. But then, you know, I don’t want to waste my time on something that’s not real, you know.

There you have it. A UTMB employee admits, under oath, that UTMB trained her to treat up to 90% of her patients as if they are lying. It’s truly absurd for Dr. Jones to complain that her job is so difficult. Imagine coming home from work and reporting that you had a terrible time disregarding 90% of your duties. Whew!

“That ten percent I did was hard but I enjoyed doing it.”

Jones offered no empirical evidence to support the claim that such a high percentage of inmates are lying and I suspect that its because UTMB doesn’t offer any either. Plain, common sense suggest the claim is a fabrication. Texas inmates are charged a $100 annual co-pay for any non-chronic care (even though they are not paid for their work). Chronic care is care for issues such as diabetes, cancer, or pre-existing conditions discovered during prisoner intake. Why would an inmate lie ‘to get something’ when it costs them $100 to do so?

It’s preposterous to conclude this unless you are interested in getting paid for work you refuse to perform. Planned, systemic belligerence. It’s not health care, it’s not medical practice, it’s hate medicine. No amount of honey can make it palatable.

*University of Texas Medical Branch

TDCJ Inmate

Hate Mail

People hate us. It sounds melodramatic, but it is true nonetheless. We’re hated by each other, by people on the outside, and by people working on the inside. By ‘us,’ I mean incarcerated persons. Offenders, inmates, convicts, prisoners. And there are people who make it their mission in life to let us know that hatred is all we deserve.

An inmate can be persuaded otherwise through cards and letters. Phone and visitation are also effective ways to do this, but it all starts with mail. You can’t visit me or receive a phone call until one or two letters pass between us. Therefore, those who staff prison and jailhouse mailrooms have the power to wreak havoc on an inmate’s psyche. The mailroom is the hub of most love entering or leaving prison. Limit mail? Limit hope.

This isn’t lost on people working in mailrooms nor those who make rules and regulations governing mail delivery. Some examples:

Stickers – Many prison mailroom employees around the country believe stickers are abhorrent. It is unclear why adhesive is so detested. Prison mailrooms consider it so dangerous, mail will be returned to sender if any adhesive-backed material is attached anywhere on a piece of mail – including an address label. It is a wonder why stamps exempted from the no-sticker rule.

Pictures – There is a major industry which supplies provocative photos to prison inmates. Inmates pick from proof sheets supplied by various companies and take their choices to the mailroom when they are ready to order. Personnel review photos after they arrive to ensure they aren’t too revealing. They will also carefully scan any photo sent by family members. An inmate I know was told that a picture of his four-year-old daughter had been rejected because she was flashing a gang sign. He later found out she was holding up a peace sign.

Address rules – Letters from prison require complete return addresses in case they contain threats or illegal instructions. The USPS doesn’t care as long as the ‘To’ address is deliverable. I once absent-mindedly omitted the city and zip code of the return address on a letter. Rather than add this to the envelope, a ten-second operation, the mailroom employee grabbed a carbon-copy form, filled out the violation details, stapled it to the envelope, and sent it back for correction. After I completed the missing information and dropped the letter back into the mailbox, it was rejected once more (in triplicate) because I had used an abbreviated first name (Rick, instead of Richard).

Handmade items – Some mailrooms will reject homemade cards – something children love to make for loved ones in prison. An inmate on my wing needed to mail a large drawing but couldn’t afford the 8″ x 15″ envelope from commissary. He made his own envelope. The mailroom rejected it, claiming that the envelope “couldn’t be properly inspected.” Someone donated an official envelope and helped transfer the stamps from the rejected envelope. Technically this was also a rule violation. Inmates aren’t allowed to give commissary items to one another. Its considered extortion. Don’t give a friend a stamp or an envelope — it leads to rape. Or so one would think.

Stationary – Families in Texas were once able to send their incarcerated loved ones writing pads, pens, pencils, and even stamps. No longer. Other states have followed suit and force inmates to purchase stationary at inflated prices.

Postage – Commissary sells various stamp denominations but nothing else that might be useful. For instance, USPS offers a flat rate box which is economical — compared to stamps — if one needs to send home books. Because mailrooms are notorious for banning books, inmates often have to pay return postage for a rejected book. Not only will the mailroom refuse to sell you a flat rate box but they will also inflate the number of stamps required to send bulky items. Because they can, prison scum.

Eff Ewe – Maine recently tried to ban all non-legal mail to any of its prison inmates. Only judicial notices and legal correspondence would have been allowed. If the people of Maine hadn’t stopped the proposal, I have no doubt that many other states would have done the same. They may even yet try.

There are some reasonable rules regarding mail delivery which aim to ensure prison security, say, don’t send explosives or metal files through the mail. Yet, when you look at many rules and more importantly, the way they are enforced, it’s obvious that safety is merely a lame excuse offered for efforts to drain hope from the incarcerated. On its face this seems odd, doesn’t it? Why would prison officials want to squash an inmate’s hope? Because they don’t know who they’re supposed to serve. If they were intent on serving society, they would turn out hopeful, educated individuals who are ready to lead positive, productive lives. Instead, they make decisions which tend to embitter and degrade their charges— the very thing which leads to recidivism— costing society dearly.

Of course, not everyone can be educated. Not everyone can be turned from their anti-social behavior. Certainly though, belligerence and hatred greatly lowers the odds that one will leave prison better than when they entered.

The prison mailroom should be a conduit for love and hope and it is in many cases. It could be more, and you can be a part of that more if you’re on the outside reading this.

You could adopt a inmate, for instance. If you’re so inclined, you could also help by raising awareness about spiteful prison mail policies. Share this. End hateful prison mailroom practices.

Rick Fisk, Dalhart Unit, TDCJ

Martin Lockett’s Review of Houses of Healing by Robin Casarjian

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Initially when I began reading this book, I thought it was going to give me all the reasons why I needed to change my thinking (as an inmate), yet offer not much in the way of breaking down how I could do it — thankfully I was wrong! Houses of Healing is a remarkable guide on how one can truly delve deeply within themselves to peel back the many layers and discover why they are who they are and how they can begin to emerge into the person they know they can become.

This book’s author has created and taught a well-known program within prison walls for over the past two decades. Through this program, countless inmates have come to discover their true selves, inner passions, and potential by first confronting the pain and turmoil they suffered as a child and slowly but surely learning how to work through it. You might be thinking this could only happen with a therapist right there to walk you through such a tumultuous journey — I thought the same. However, Casarjian composed this book to act as a surrogate counselor, walking with you every arduous step of the way, ultimately leading you to a place of healing and self-discovery.

She uses a psychoanalytic approach (focused on tapping into one’s unconscious thoughts and influences that have, unbeknown to them, guided his/her behavior) to bring about this therapeutic breakthrough, whereby the “Inner Child” is the point of reference she asks her readers to get in touch with. The Inner Child, she suggests, resides deeply within all of us and, for prisoners in particular, this Inner Child’s unresolved conflicts that took place decades ago is often at the root of our self-destructive (i.e. substance addiction, violence, criminality, etc.) behavior. We are unable to change such embedded patterns of behavior without first getting in touch with the Inner Child that we’ve “buried” as a means to protect him or her — ourselves.

I read this book with an open mind, allowing the concepts and teachings to sink in. At times I wanted to disregard what she was saying, or dismiss what she was asserting as not applicable to me, but then I realized this was yet again a defense mechanism I was trying to use to protect my Inner Child. When I mentally let my guard down and absorbed what was being said, I noticed how stirred up inside I became and how some discovery and healing was happening as a result. When you read this book and instinctively find yourself shutting down, press on harder. There’s a reason you are having that reaction; chances are it’s because what is being said is exactly what you need to hear and apply to your own life.

Houses of Healing is a highly respected and recommended book, especially by those who have a stake in correctional rehabilitation (i.e. educators, counselors, support group facilitators), namely inmates looking to take their lives in a new direction. This may very well be your guide to truly coming to understand why your life ended up where it did and, more importantly, how you can begin to change both your long-held thoughts and harmful behavioral patterns. If there were one book I could recommend to anyone in prison who is looking to understand why they may have made a series of bad choices (without even thinking about it) that landed them in prison, are tired of living that way and wish to change, this would be that book. Give it a try: you won ‘t be sorry you did.

grad-pic-outsideIn 2013 Martin L. Lockett published his memoir, Palpable Irony: Losing my freedom to find my purpose. During his incarceration, he has earned a Certificate of Human Services  from Louisiana State University, AA from Indiana University, BS in Sociology from Colorado State University – Pueblo, and an MS in Psychology from California Coast University. He continues to tutor in the GED program at the Oregon State Correctional Institution in Salem, Oregon, and co-facilitates an impaired driver victims impact panel. He aspires to counsel adolescents who struggle with substance abuse.

Urgent: December Fundraiser Update

Thanks to our supporters on both sides of the wall, we are less than $600 away from our goal of $3,000 for our website fundraiser!

From the letter above, which included a donation of six stamped envelopes from an Arizona prisoner: 

“You have taken on an enormous task, and placed on your shoulders a heavy burden, because on your shoulders you now carry the hope of those who were hopeless.

Prisoners who have jobs get paid 35¢ an hour (some a bit more). So please keep in perspective that each letter you receive with a SASE represents two hours of raking dirt in 105° Arizona heat, or sweating in a humid upholstery shop. Their letters to you are no small investment but they are worth it to these men. Because they carry hope.”

Volunteers have been working around the clock in preparation for the launch of our re-designed website. Completion of this project will enable us to reach more adopters, and in turn, more forgotten inmates. 

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Send us some love this holiday, please help us raise

the final $600

We are a registered domestic non-profit and rely solely on donations. no one at AI receives a salary, and 100% of donations benefit prisoners directly. If everyone reading this gave a few dollars, our goal would be met in an hour.

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Happy Halloween

 

 

From our friend Roy in Texas – he handmade this intricate 3D card.

 

We All Matter

This is an email I received from our remarkable friend “Joseph,” incarcerated in Washington’s Monroe Correctional Complex. Joseph is organizing an inmate fundraiser, to help us pay for our new website after we lost our funding.

Oddly, America, and I suppose humanity as a whole has a long history of allowing our diversity to cause divisiveness.

When the English first began settling here, they persecuted and slaughtered innumerable Native Americans. Then as more Europeans came, the divisiveness continued as the Irish, German, Italian and others were designated as less than because they were different.

The era of slavery, which many of us (myself included) imagine as ending after the civil war, took on many more sinister faces.

One startling example is the Black Codes, which were enacted by the southern states post war, and required freed “blacks” to have a written verification of employment every year, else they were arrested for vagrancy, and rented out to the highest labor contractor. Then, since they were not slaves which required food and health to be useful, they would work them to death, or beat them brutally and leave them to die.

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This provoked the Reconstruction Era, and brought about the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments to our constitution.

However, the horrors persisted through the 1960’s when the civil rights movement gave a minor reprieve… Which brought about the creation of our modern prison industrial complex. Devastation to communities torn asunder by the incarceration of their (for the most part) men, fatherless children, families without providers…and then the return of men damaged beyond repair by their incarceration experience. Men who further burdened their communities by the cruelty they often had to embrace in order to survive inside.

Our diversity in here has caused divisiveness, historically. Whites v Blacks, Latino v Latino…and all of us against the guards, as well as society.

We are all human. We are all citizens of America. We all matter. We all have much more in common than we do differences.

Yes, my dear friend, you and I know this truth, but how do we get that message to the people that do not know?

When I get out, I intend to do public speaking and one of my key goals will be to raise awareness about the continued value of every man, woman, and child. Free or incarcerated.

Update: Website Fundraiser – 7 days left

Inmate Fundraiser Update:

We have seven days to make a payment of $750.00 to our dream web-design team. Prisoners, whose average earnings are $35 a month, have donated $350 in a single week. 

After we unexpectedly lost funding for our new website, inmates rallied to help.


“I discovered a nonprofit promoting the dream of every man and woman incarcerated: for people in society to see our continuing human value — despite the mistakes we have made.”


The words above are from a speech delivered by a Washington inmate, kicking off their fundraiser to benefit Adopt an Inmate.

In addition to the inside fundraisers, we continue to receive encouraging letters from inmates – thanking us for our work and donating what little they have, so that more inmates can be helped.

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We have seven days to make a payment of $750.00 to our dream web-design team. Prisoners, whose average earnings are $35 a month, have donated $350 in a single week. 

Can you match the generosity of a prisoner?

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Seven days left, every single dollar helps.

AI is a registered domestic non-profit, all donations are tax-deductible. Please share with anyone interested in criminal justice reform.

Adopt an Inmate Needs Your Help

There’s good news and bad news …

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Many of you are aware of our website re-design which is underway. We were lucky enough to find a talented design team that is both excited about the project, and supportive of our cause – so much so that they have adopted an inmate.

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On the verge of the relaunch, our funding fell through. Our designers have honored their end of the contract, and we need your help to get them paid.

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Upon learning of our predicament, some of the inmates have rallied and are sending personal donations and organizing fundraisers on the inside to help us get our vendor paid for their outstanding work, so we can move ahead with the project, and avoid late fees.

The Inside Campaign

Our friend, we’ll call him Joseph, is a Tier Representative in Washington’s Monroe Correctional Center who believes in the mission and spirit of our organization. He and his fellow inmates have chosen Adopt an Inmate as the recipient of their in-house fundraisers for the next three months. Their campaign will kick off today, with a speech and a challenge delivered by Joseph to donate a portion of their own monthly pay (an average of $35 per month) over the next three months. Joseph is starting off their campaign with a personal donation of $200.00!

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We have a short time to raise $3,000. Please help by matching the goodwill and efforts of the Washington inmates. Completion of the website project will ensure that more volunteers are reached, and ultimately more forgotten people will have support from the outside.

Can you donate more than a guy who makes $35 a month at his prison job?

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AI is a registered domestic non-profit, all donations are tax-deductible. Please share with anyone interested in criminal justice reform.

Michael Henderson’s Review of Night by Elie Wiesel

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It’s not very often I can say that I’m sorry I missed the contemporaneous contributions to humanity by any particular human being. The recent passing of Elie Wiesel has left me feeling that loss.

The vivid portrayal of Mr. Wiesel’s Second World War atrocities were nothing less than shocking and left me with an urgent need to know more about the boy who survived some of the most inhumane conditions ever perpetrated by man, and the man who endured and grew from those conditions.

Much of the treatment meted from the German SS was, I am sure with good reason, not described in Night. Nonetheless, Elie Wiesel is an author I plan on learning more from — even posthumously.

This edition was translated by the person who knew him best — his loving wife — who lost nothing in translation. I was moved for the entire Jewish populous for their ordeal, but I felt uniquely helpless for the author who found the strength to re-live his pain in order to heal the world.

With intense, gripping narrative, I was unable to put the book down until I was overcome by the need to sleep. But sleep doesn’t come easy with the realization of what humans are capable of doing to each other, and how hard Elie Wiesel worked, through his writings, to change the world — his and ours.

Five stars and I’m looking for more.

Michael Henderson, FL

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